• ISSN: Print ISSN: 2382-6282; E-ISSN: 2972-3108 (under registration)
    • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Lang. Lit. Linguist.
    • Frequency: Quarterly 
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJLLL
    • Editor-in-Chief: Dr. Jason Miin-Hwa Lim
    • Executive Editor:  Jennifer X. Zeng
    • Indexed by:   CNKI, Google Scholar, Crossref,
    • E-mail: ijlll@ejournal.net
IJLLL 2018 Vol.4(4): 276-280 ISSN: 2382-6282
DOI: 10.18178/IJLLL.2018.4.4.187

Dialect Phonemes Incorporated into the Standard Kadazandusun Language

Henry Bating, Loi Chek Kim, and Siti Aishah Ramli
Abstract—The present study is an analysis of vocoid and contoid variation in Kadazandusun dialects and it has an implication for the teaching of standardized spelling and pronunciation of the Kadazandusun language in Malaysia. The study aims to analyze the phonemes of the Kadazandusun dialects in order to determine the phonemes and graphemes that have been incorporated into the standard Kadazandusun language. This paper uses the qualitative descriptive method of literature study. The sample comprises 10 dialects, namely Tatana, Lotud, Tangaa’, Rungus, Kimaragang, Liwan (Tambunan), Murut Timugon, Murut Tagol, Tombonuo and Kolobuan. These dialects were selected from the three language families in Sabah, namely Dusunic, Murutic and Paitanic. A -dialectal analysis was performed on the segmental phonemic description and phonemes of each dialect to find common equation similarities that have provided a base for standardizing the phonemes and graphemes of the Kadazandusun language. The findings show that the Kadazandusun language has 36 phonemes comprising six vocals, seven diphthongs and 23 consonants. All the 36 phonemes are represented by 21 graphemes of Romanized letters. Other phonemes are denoted by diacritical signs and two vowel arrangements.

Index Terms—Dialect, grapheme, phoneme, vowel.

The author are with Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia (e-mail: hbating@ gmail.com, lck734@yahoo.com, siti.aishah@ums.edu.my).


Cite:Henry Bating, Loi Chek Kim, and Siti Aishah Ramli, "Dialect Phonemes Incorporated into the Standard Kadazandusun Language," International Journal of Languages, Literature and Linguistics vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 276-280, 2018.

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